Lisa Dethridge: Considerations for Extended-Reality, Augmented-Reality and Mixed-Reality Design

Keywords: Mixed-reality, Virtual reality, Augmented reality, 3D computer graphics, holography,  avatar,  telepresence, robotics, epistemology.

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This article describes emerging digital media environments with a focus on extended-reality (XR) spaces that take our visual awares beyond the flat two-dimensional screen or computer monitor.  These media environments include digitally-generated content in the form of characters such as the avatar, the robot or cyborg. These digital entities express or embody a variety of audiovisual communication forms; data streams, animations, algorithms and programs.  The evolution of digital media includes the increased use of 360 degree viewing environments.  We move toward the hyper-realistic rendering of avatars and robots who exist in three dimensional space of our “real world”.  Unlike previous media characters depicted in movie or video projections, these new media forms seem to “make real” images and characters.  They embody our digital files as separate spatial entities in the real space alongside us.  Rather than accessing virtual worlds through the portal of the computer screen, we are evolving toward an augmented or mixed-reality environment. We now visualize our data and bring our digital files into the "real" space with us using sophisticated techniques in 3D computer graphics, laser and holographic technologies.   The article discusses extended reality against a humanist background which considers the history of media and the ethical questions raised by such technology.  This inquiry focuses on philosophical questions that may be relevant not only to scholars but also to the designers, producers, programmers, educators and researchers of virtual and cyber environments across a wide range of fields.


Damian Schofield, Robert LeDone: The Motivations of a Video Game Streamers and their Viewers

Keywords: Twitch TV, video games, motivation

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With the explosion in popularity of sites like the streaming community has grown into a widespread, global phenomenon. Twitch has 2.2 million monthly broadcasters, watched by 15 million daily active users, and over 150 million monthly unique viewers – and Twitch is only one of the services available (Smith, 2019). Little is known about the communities however; this paper aims to further investigate and explain the motivations of both the content creators and the content viewers. The first study in this paper looks at the motivations and personality types of individuals who would wish to stream content on these sites by using the Big Five Personality Inventory (Rothmann and Coetzer, 2003) and Yee’s Gamer Motivations (Yee, 2006). The second study aims to see if there is a connection between viewer retention and Yee’s Gamer Motivations.


Allan Thomas: Thought Without a Thinking Subject; or, Karl Popper as Film-Philosopher

Keywords: Film philosophy, Karl Popper, Objective Knowledge

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The most interesting, and problematic, claim made by (some) film-philosophy, for me, is the proposition that film thinks. This claim is interesting because it asserts that film has something philosophical to offer that philosophy itself lacks. It is problematic because we tend to think that where there is thinking, there must be a ‘someone’ doing that thinking. And whatever film is, it is not a ‘someone’. This paper brings Karl Popper’s model of objective knowledge – what he calls ‘knowledge in the absence of a knowing subject’ – to bear on the proposition that ‘film thinks’, in order to sketch out an account of film as a process of objective thinking distinct from that of philosophy or any other merely human mode of thought.


Shaun Wilson: The Long Take as a Metamodernist Framework in the Age of Perpetual Distraction

Keywords: cinematography, lens based practice, critical theory, Metamodernism

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This paper will explore the nature of the long take as a metamodernist framework by establishing the two key terms of ‘visual listening' and ‘cinematic inclusion’ to be designed through a working model that represents the ways by which these two terms can be inclusive of defining how an audience can engage with cinema through a third key term of ‘unjectiveness’. This developed model will challenge both film philosophy and film theory to derive at a proposition that considers such perspectives to be redundant in understanding a long shot and, therefore, not applicable for coming to terms with the wider premise of making cinema. Later discussion will approach this as being inasmuch of cinema as it is to be of the film used through unjectiveness in understanding the role and impact of the long shot used to counter screen distraction and its effect on contemporary audiences that otherwise reduces the meaningfulness of durational screen experiences.

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